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Jessika Photographer

Photography of Travel and Life's Stories

 
 
 

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蝴蝶 Butterflies  

2014-03-27 12:56:19|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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蝴蝶  Butterflies - 胶片的味道  - Jessika Photographer


蝴蝶  Butterflies - 胶片的味道  - Jessika Photographer

蝴蝶  Butterflies - 胶片的味道  - Jessika Photographer 
蝴蝶  Butterflies - 胶片的味道  - Jessika Photographer

蝴蝶  Butterflies - 胶片的味道  - Jessika Photographer

 
蝴蝶  Butterflies - 胶片的味道  - Jessika Photographer

蝴蝶  Butterflies - 胶片的味道  - Jessika Photographer 

蝴蝶  Butterflies - 胶片的味道  - Jessika Photographer
 

蝴蝶  Butterflies - 胶片的味道  - Jessika Photographer
 
蝴蝶  Butterflies - 胶片的味道  - Jessika Photographer
 
蝴蝶  Butterflies - 胶片的味道  - Jessika Photographer
 
蝴蝶  Butterflies - 胶片的味道  - Jessika Photographer
 
蝴蝶  Butterflies - 胶片的味道  - Jessika Photographer
 
蝴蝶  Butterflies - 胶片的味道  - Jessika Photographer
 
蝴蝶  Butterflies - 胶片的味道  - Jessika Photographer
 



 
 
蝴蝶  Butterflies - 胶片的味道  - Jessika Photographer
 
蝴蝶  Butterflies - 胶片的味道  - Jessika Photographer
 


蝴蝶  Butterflies - 胶片的味道  - Jessika Photographer
 

 
蝴蝶  Butterflies - 胶片的味道  - Jessika Photographer
 
蝴蝶  Butterflies - 胶片的味道  - Jessika Photographer
 

 

 
蝴蝶  Butterflies - 胶片的味道  - Jessika Photographer
 
蝴蝶  Butterflies - 胶片的味道  - Jessika Photographer
 
蝴蝶  Butterflies - 胶片的味道  - Jessika Photographer
 
蝴蝶  Butterflies - 胶片的味道  - Jessika Photographer
 


蝴蝶  Butterflies - 胶片的味道  - Jessika Photographer
 
蝴蝶  Butterflies - 胶片的味道  - Jessika Photographer
 
蝴蝶  Butterflies - 胶片的味道  - Jessika Photographer
 
蝴蝶  Butterflies - 胶片的味道  - Jessika Photographer
 

 
蝴蝶  Butterflies - 胶片的味道  - Jessika Photographer
 
蝴蝶  Butterflies - 胶片的味道  - Jessika Photographer
 
蝴蝶  Butterflies - 胶片的味道  - Jessika Photographer
 
蝴蝶  Butterflies - 胶片的味道  - Jessika Photographer
 

 

 

蝴蝶  Butterflies - 胶片的味道  - Jessika Photographer
 
蝴蝶  Butterflies - 胶片的味道  - Jessika Photographer
 
蝴蝶  Butterflies - 胶片的味道  - Jessika Photographer
 
蝴蝶  Butterflies - 胶片的味道  - Jessika Photographer
 

 
蝴蝶  Butterflies - 胶片的味道  - Jessika Photographer
 
蝴蝶  Butterflies - 胶片的味道  - Jessika Photographer
 

 
蝴蝶  Butterflies - 胶片的味道  - Jessika Photographer
 
蝴蝶  Butterflies - 胶片的味道  - Jessika Photographer
 

 蝴蝶  Butterflies - 胶片的味道  - Jessika Photographer

蝴蝶  Butterflies - 胶片的味道  - Jessika Photographer

 

 蝴蝶  Butterflies - 胶片的味道  - Jessika Photographer 


 



蓝蝴蝶 Blue Morpho Butterfies Mar 2014


每年三月,是蓝蝴蝶在美国中部的生存期。

当几千只蓝蝴蝶在我身边飞舞的时候,我真的以为我在做蝴蝶梦,到了蝴蝶的天堂。 真不忍心看到美丽的蝴蝶煽破了翅膀, 更不忍心地想再过几天他们都要死亡。 我尽可能捕捉这美丽的瞬间,让它成为永恒。

蝴蝶 - 娃娃---摄影师 - Jessika Photographer

 

是蝶还是花?蝶与花一家。花蝶交相恋,似蝶又似花。

 
蝴蝶 - 娃娃---摄影师 - Jessika Photographer
 
蝴蝶 - 娃娃---摄影师 - Jessika Photographer
 
蝴蝶 - 娃娃---摄影师 - Jessika Photographer
 Morpho butterfly
A morpho butterfly may be one of over 29 accepted species and 147 accepted subspecies of butterflies in the genus Morpho. They are Neotropical butterflies found mostly in South America as well as Mexico and Central America.Morphos range in wingspan from the 7.5 cm (3 inch) M. rhodopteron to the imposing 20 cm (8 inch) Sunset Morpho, M. hecuba. The name Morpho, meaning changed or modified, is also an epithet of Aphrodite and Venus
 
 蝴蝶 - 娃娃---摄影师 - Jessika Photographer
 Coloration

Many morpho butterflies are colored in metallic, shimmering shades of blue and green. These colors are not a result of pigmentation but are an example of iridescence through structural coloration: the microscopic scales covering the Morpho's wings reflect incident light repeatedly at successive layers, leading to interference effects that depend on both wavelength and angle of incidence/observance.Thus the colors produced vary with viewing angle, however they are actually surprisingly uniform, perhaps due to the tetrahedral (diamond-like) structural arrangement of the scales or diffraction from overlying cell layers. This structure may be likened to a photonic crystal. The lamellate structure of their wing scales has been studied as a model in the development of biomimetic fabrics, dye-free paints, and anti-counterfeit technology used in currency.

 

 
蝴蝶 - 娃娃---摄影师 - Jessika Photographer

The iridescent lamellae are only present on the dorsal side of their wings, leaving the ventral side brown.

The ventral side is decorated with ocelli or eyespots. In some species, such as M. godarti, the dorsal lamellae are so thin as to allow the ventral ocelli to peek through. While not all Morphos have iridescent coloration, they all have ocelli. In most species only the males are colorful, supporting the theory that the coloration is used for intrasexual communication between males. The lamellae reflect up to 70% of light falling on them, including any ultraviolet (UV). The eyes of Morpho butterflies are thought to be highly sensitive to UV light and therefore the males are able to see each other from great distances. Some South American species are reportedly visible by the human eye up to one kilometre away.

 
 
蝴蝶 - 娃娃---摄影师 - Jessika Photographer

There also exist a number of other species which are tawny orange or dark brown for instance (M. hecuba, M. telemachus). Some species are white principal among these being M. catenarius and M. laertes. An unusual species that is fundamentally white in coloration, but which exhibits a stunning pearlescent purple and teal iridescence when viewed at certain angles is the rare M. sulkowskyi. Some Andean species are small and delicate (M. lympharis). Among the metallic blue Morpho species, M. rhetenor stands out as the most iridescent of all, with M. cypris a close second. Indeed, M. cypris is notable in that specimens that are mounted in entomological collections will exhibit color differences across the wings if they are not 'set' perfectly flat.

 
 
蝴蝶 - 娃娃---摄影师 - Jessika Photographer
 
Habitat
 Habitat: Primary forests of the Amazon and Atlantic. Also adapted to breed in a wide variety of other forested habitats, for instance the dry deciduous woodlands of Nicaragua and secondary forests.
Morphos are found at altitudes between sea level and about 1400 m.
 
蝴蝶 - 娃娃---摄影师 - Jessika Photographer
 
Biology
Morphos are diurnal, as males spend the mornings patrolling along the courses of forest streams and rivers. They are territorial and will chase any rivals.Morphos typically live alone, excluding in the mating season.
The genus Morpho is palatable but some species (such as
M. amathonte) are very strong fliers;birds – even species which are specialized for catching butterflies on the wing – find it very hard to catch them. The conspicuous blue coloration shared by most Morpho species may be a case of Müllerian mimicry,or may be 'pursuit aposematism'.
The eyespots on the undersides of the wings of both males and females may be a form of
automimicry in which a spot on the body of an animal resembles an eye of a different animal to deceive potential predator or prey species; to draw a predator's attention away from the most vulnerable body parts; or to appear as an inedible or even dangerous animal.
Predators include
Royal Flycatchers, Jacamars and other insectivorous birds, frogs, and lizards.
 
蝴蝶 - 娃娃---摄影师 - Jessika Photographer
Life cycle

The entire life cycle of the Morpho butterfly, from egg to death, is approximately 115 days.


        Caterpillars pupae and emerging adult

The larvae hatch from pale green, dewdrop-like eggs. The caterpillars have reddish-brown bodies with bright lime-green or yellow patches on its back. Its hairs are irritating to human skin, and when disturbed it secretes a fluid that smells like rancid butter from eversible glands on the thorax. The strong odor is a defence against predators. They feed on a variety of plants. The caterpillar will molt five times before entering the pupal stage. The bulbous chrysalis is pale-green or jade-green and emits a repulsive, ultrasonic sound when touched.[8] It is suspended from a stem or leaf of the foodplant.

 
蝴蝶 - 娃娃---摄影师 - Jessika Photographer
 

"The larvae live in nests on different forest – trees and especially on the climbing plants, but attack one another. There are about five moults. Larva cylindrical rather slender, somewhat thickened in the middle,tapering posteriorly. The last segment terminates in an indistinct tail-fork. The head is comparatively large and bears a pair of horizontal, conical processes, directed anteriorly, which are sometimes only rudimentary. Color always bright, sometimes variegated, yellowish with red-brown dorsal stripes or cross-shaped figures, back with long subdorsal tufts of bristles, of which the middle and posterior are in some cases gaily colored. Pupa similar to that of the genus Amathusia but more oval. Head with two tubercles, wing-cases distinctly projecting, abdomen sometimes belted with yellow ; color green or yellowish. Pupa on twigs or leaves attached by the abdomen but hanging free. The pupal stage lasts 20—30 days"



蝴蝶 - 娃娃---摄影师 - Jessika Photographer
 

The adults live for about two to three weeks. They feed on the fluids of fermenting fruit, decomposing animals, tree sap, fungi and nutrient rich mud.hey are poisonous to predators thanks to toxins they sequestered from plants they fed on as caterpillars.

The commoner Blue Morphos are reared en masse in commercial breeding programs. The iridescent wings are used in the manufacture of jewelry and as inlay in woodworking. Papered specimens are sold with the abdomen removed to prevent its oily contents from staining the wings. Significant quantities of live specimens are exported as pupae from several neotropical countries for exhibition in butterfly houses. Unfortunately, due to their irregular flight pattern and size, their wings are frequently damaged when in captivity.

 
蝴蝶 - 娃娃---摄影师 - Jessika Photographer
 
Larvae host plants

Morpho larvae,variously according to species and region feed on Leguminosae, Gramineae, Canellaceae, Guttiferae, Erythroxylaceae, Myrtaceae, Moraceae, Lauraceae, Sapindaceae, Rhamnaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Musaceae, Palmae, Menispermaceae, Tiliaceae, Bignoniaceae, and Menispermaceae.

According to Penz and DeVries the ancestral diet of larval Satyrinae is Poaceae or other monocots. Many Morphos have switched to dicots on several occasions during their evolutionary history but basal species have retained the monocot diet.

 
蝴蝶 - 娃娃---摄影师 - Jessika Photographer
Sexual dimorphism
The blue Morpho species exhibit sexual dimorphism. In some species (for instance M.adonis, M. eugenia, M. aega, M. cypris, and M. rhetenor) only the males are iridescent blue, the females are disruptively coloured brown and yellow. In other species (for instance M. anaxibia, M. godarti, M.didius, M. amathonte, and M. deidamia) the females are partially iridescent but less blue than the males.
 
蝴蝶 - 娃娃---摄影师 - Jessika Photographer
 
Taxonomy and nomenclature
 
A multitude of names attach to the genus Morpho, which has also been variously divided into subgenera. As well as names at species and subspecies level there are hundreds of form, variety, and aberration names. Lamas included all such species within a single genus, and synonymizing many names in a limited number of species. C.M. Penz & P.J. DeVries have provided a phylogenetic analysis with different nomenclature. Other authorities[which?] accept many more species than either.
 
蝴蝶 - 娃娃---摄影师 - Jessika Photographer
 
Collectors
 

Morpho butterflies, often very expensive, have always been prized by extremely wealthy collectors. Famous collections include those of the London jeweller Dru Drury and the Dutch merchant Pieter Teyler van der Hulst, the Paris diplomat Georges Rousseau-Decelle, the financier Walter Rothschild, the Romanov Grand Duke Nicholas Mikhailovich of Russia and the, English and German respectively, businessmen James John Joicey and Curt Eisner. In earlier years Morphos graced Cabinets of Curiosities "Kunstkamera" and Royal Cabinets of Natural History notably those of Tsar of Russia Peter the Great, the Austrian empress Maria Theresa and Ulrika Eleonora, Queen of Sweden. More famous is Maria Sibylla Merian who was not wealthy.

 

 
蝴蝶 - 娃娃---摄影师 - Jessika Photographer
 
The people along the Rio Negro in Brazil once exploited the territorial habits of the Blue Morpho (M. menelaus) by luring them into clearings with bright blue decoys. The collected butterfly wings were used as embellishment for ceremonial masks. Adult Morpho butterflies feed on the juices of fermenting fruit with which they may also be lured. The butterflies wobble in flight and are easy to catch.
 
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蝴蝶 - 娃娃---摄影师 - Jessika Photographer
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